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17. conjunctions, particles and interjections


A conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases or clauses together. Conjunctions are noninflected and are used in exactly the same way as in English. Learn the most used Neoslavonic conjunctions from this table:

 ni ...  ni ...     
 neither ... nor ...
 i ili
 (either) or
 or (logically) 
 causal  bo, zatože
 in order to/that

Coupling clauses
can also be referenced by various reference, demonstrative and interrogative pronouns, numerals and adverbs (e.g. iže, ktory, koliko, kdie, ...) that connect the main concepts between the superordinate and the subordinate clause.


hlieb i vino = bread and wine
ni cesara ni krala = neither any emperor nor any king
Hočete li piti pivo ili vino? = Do You want to drink beer or wine? (either beer or wine)
Dobro to mysliš, no ne jest to možne. = You mean it well, but it is not possible.
Išel jesm kupovati do t'rgu, bo doma ne bylo nijake jadenije. = I went for shopping at the market, because there was nothing to eat at home.

Ne hoču auto, v ktorem jest slaby motor. = I do not want a car, in which the engine is weak. (pronoun with preposition v ktorem makes the conjunction)


A particle is a special part of speech, which complements the word or clause by any additional information detail. We already learned the particle li, which changes the verb from the indicative mode to the interrogative mode, and the particles da, ne. Here is the table of the most used Neoslavonic particles:

 yes, of course, eh, yea 
 ne  no, not
 querying  ače ..., pak ..., ili ... .     
 if ..., then ..., else ... .
(querying verbs
 emphasizing  ubo
 thus, therefore, hence
 despite of, yet, notwithstanding 


Ače izjutra bude dobre vreme, pak ne hoču ostati v domu.If the weather will be good tomorrow, then I do not want to stay at home.
Esperanto imaje prostu grammatiku. Obače važi, že to ne jest dobry jezyk. = Esperanto has a simple grammar. Yet it is not a good language.
Ej, to jest pravda! = Oh yes/yea, it is true!


Slavic languages often replace the querying particle ače (or similar) by verb in querying mode (e.g. bude li dobre vreme, ...). Remember that this style has the same meaning as the standard ače ... .


An interjection or an exclamation is a noninflected word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker. They are for example oh! = oh!, uva! = lo!, see!, behold!


Oh, to ne jest možne! = Oh, this is not possible!

Moreover, any direct speech closed in quotation marks is semantically considered as an interjection too.


"Dobro jesme!" je kazal tamtoj človiek. = "We are all right" said that man.
Žaba "plesk!" je skočila do vody. = A frog "splash!" jumped into the water.

a joke


Diedko telefoniruje do doma, i telefon bere maly Ivanek.

diedko: "Zdravej! Prošu, daj mi mamku!"

Ivanek slabim glasom otgovorivaje: "Ja ne možu, mamka jest v kuhnji i mnogo plače."

diedko: "Dobro, daj mi otca!"

Ivanek iznovo slabo otgovorivaje: "Ja ne možu, otec jest takože v kuhnji i mnogo kriči."

diedko: "Spokojno, daj mi babku!"

Ivanek: "Babku takože ne možu. Ona je s mamkoj i plače."

diedko nervozno: "Prošu Tebe, jest li u Vas ještie niekto vazrastly?"

Ivanek: "Da, policija tu je."

diedko kriči do telefona: "Bože! I što u Vas dielaje policija?"

Ivanek slabim glasom otgovorivaje: "Oni mnie iskajut."

diedko (m.) = a grandfather, granddad
Ivanek = little Ivan (personal name)
telefon (m.) = a phone
telefonirati, telefoniruješ (v. impf.) = to call
dom (m.) = a house
brati (v.) = to take
maly (adj.) = small
zdravej! (int.) = hi!
prositi, prosiš (v.) = to please
dati, daješ (v. pf.) = to give
mamka (f.) = a mother, mummy
plakati, plačeš (v.) to cry
slaby (adj.) = weak
glas (m.) = a voice
otgovorivati, otgovorivaješ (v. impf.) = to answer
otec (m.) = a father
takože (adv.) = too, as well
iznovo (adv.) = again
kuhnja (f.) = a kitchen
mnogo (adv.) = a lot
kričati, kričiš (v. impf.) = to shout, to scream
spokojno (adv.) = well-content, cheerfully
nervozno (adv.) = nervously
babka (f.) = a grandmother, granny
ještie (adv.) = yet more
vazrastly (adj.) = adult
policija (f.) = police
Bog (m.) = the God
iskati, iskaješ (v. impf.) = to search, to look for