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18. sentences with coordinate and subordinate clauses, writing commas

coordinate clauses

The clause has the coordinate relationship when it has the same information without any dependence to the other clause. Sentences with coordinate clauses are created easily by using conjunctions or articles between particular clauses. Here they are:

 ni ...  ni ...     
 neither ... nor ...
 i ili
 (either) or
 or (logically) 
 causal bo, zatože
 in order to/that
 implicative  ače ..., pak ..., ili ...     
 if ..., then ..., else ...


Včera je byla velika zima, i my jesme ostali doma. = Yesterday was a big cold, and we stayed home.
Budete li letieti samoletom, ili hočete iti autom? = Will You fly by a plane, or You do You want to go by a car?
Jesme se učili Esperanto, no ne je byl to dobry jezyk. = We learned Esperanto, but it was not a good language.
Učihom Esperanto, no ne bieše to dobry jezyk. = We learned Esperanto, but it was not a good language.
Učime se govoriti Novoslovienski, bo hočeme razumiti Slovienom. = We learn to speak Neoslavonic, because we want to understand Slavic people.
Hočeme, da imate dobre vreme! = We want you to have good weather!
Ače bude dobre vreme, pak ideme do prirody. = If there will be the good weather, then we will go to the countryside/nature.

subordinate clauses

Two clauses have the subordinate relationship when one clause (e.g. subordinate) has dependent content on the other clause (e.g. superordinate). This means, that the subordinate clauses cannot stand alone without their control elements contained in superordinate clauses.

In Neoslavonic, the subordinate clause must begin by some referential grammatical element, which represents something from corresponding superordinate clause. This can be done by:
  1. referential conjunctions že = that. Here the entire subordinate clause refers to the verb from the superordinate clause.

  2. relative pronoun iže, jegože, jemuže, jejže, ... (see lesson 7. for details). Here the relative pronoun refers to some noun, numeral or pronoun from the superordinate clause.

  3. any interrogative pronoun, numeral or adverb (e.g. ktory, koliko, kogda, ...). Here the interrogative pronoun, numeral or adverb refers to some noun, numeral or adverb from the superordinate clause.


Govorim, že to ne jest dobre. = I say, that this is not good. (žegovorim)
Kto jest tamtoj človiek, ktory imaje zelene auto? = Who is that man, who has a green car?  (ktoryčloviek)
Ne hoču auto, v ktorem jest slaby motor. = I do not want a car, in which the engine is weak. (ktoreauto)
Moj prijatel, jegože mlada žena tamo ide, jest bolestny. = My friend, whose young wife is going there, is sick. (jegožeprijatel)
Ne znaju točno, koliko imajeme ljudij. = I do not know, how many people we have. (kolikotočno)
Ideme do prirody, kogda je dobre vreme. = We will go to the countryside/nature, when there is the good weather. (kogdado prirody)

writing commas

Neoslavonic is an auxiliary language, and therefore has no strict rules for writing commas between clauses. Frankly said, You can use the same rules that you know your native language. But there is one simple rule that would be good to follow:

Each clause having its verb and other elements (e.g. subject, object, adverbial parts, ...) should be separated from other clauses with a comma.

This rule is followed in all examples in this tutorial:

Ideme do prirody, kogda bude dobre vreme.   - here we need one comma.
First clause = Ideme do prirody.
Second clause = Kogda bude dobre vreme.

Moj prijatel, jegože mlada žena tamo ide, jest bolestny.   - here we need two commas
First clause =
Moj prijatel jest bolestny.
Second clause = Jegože mlada žena tamo ide.